You may know what IQ is, but have you ever thought about what FQ is, or the so called food IQ? Take the test below and see how well you know the principles of a proper nutrition.
Vitamins and nutrients
1. What is the best cooking method for vegetables in order to keep their nutrients?
Vegetables can lose up to 70% of their content of water-soluble vitamins B and C, when boiled. The best way to cook them is, with as less water as possible, just until they softened. However, steaming may result in loss of vitamins up to 30%. Stir-frying for a few minutes, using a wok, can help vegetables retain water-soluble vitamins. Be sure to cook the vegetables right after cleaning them, as they immediately start to lose vitamin C.
2. Which of the following foods have higher flavonoid content?
a. Cherry tomatoes
b. Red berries and grapes
c. Dried plums
Grapes, like red berries contain flavonoids (about 18 mg/100 g), e.g. epicatechins, catechins, quercetins and cyanidins. These are strong antioxidant substances, which neutralize free radicals and strengthens body’s defences.
3. Which of the following foods have the highest content of vitamin C?
c. Red pepper
A medium sized red pepper (approx. 120 g) contains approximately 152 mg of vitamin C, while the daily recommended intake of vitamin C for a healthy adult is 60 mg. However, you need much more vitamin C if you are a smoker or drink alcohol regularly or during periods of stress.
4. For which of the following functions, vitamin A intake is absolutely essential?
b. Calcium absorption
c. Immune system
Vitamin A is considered the vitamin of vision as it’s essential for the normal functioning of the retina, especially for the adaptation of vision in the dark. In addition, it contributes to good skin health and has antioxidant activity. The lack of it can cause reduced night vision, headaches, skin dryness, while overconsumption can cause vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea.
5. What should a daily diet contain?
a. 70% carbohydrate, 25% protein, 5% fat
b. 50% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 35% fat
c. 25% carbohydrate, 60% protein, 15% fat
A balanced meal must contain approximately 1/3 carbohydrates (such as whole grain bread, pasta, rice), 1/3 vegetables, 1/3 protein and fat (e.g. olive oil). Snacks in between meals are not counted, which must be low in fat and quite rich in carbohydrates.
6. How many calories you need to cut off from your daily diet every 5 years after age 30?
Our metabolism is working in the best possible way, up until the age of 30. From then on, the ability to burn calories begins to decline. In that case, it would be wise every 5 years after that age, to reduce your daily caloric intake by 50 calories. Therefore, at the age of 45 you will need 150 calories less than when you were 30 years old.
7. For every 3,500 calories you eat and not burn, you save on average 450 g. body fat.
You can easily gather these extra calories during only one week, by adding 500 calories in your daily diet. If you don’t burn them, then you save about 450 g. fat for each extra 3,500 calories. However, if you want to lose weight, you must spend more calories than those you consume.
8. Which are the most dangerous fats in a diet?
a. Hydrogenated fats
b. Saturated fats
Those kind of fats have undergone special processing. Trans fats are the most harmful, leading to an increase in total and “bad” cholesterol and to a reduction of “good” cholesterol, while related to cardiovascular problems. Try, therefore, to avoid them by checking the labels on food packages.
9. Put the following food in sequence, starting from the one containing the biggest amount in saturated fat:
a. Cottage Cheese
Answer: c, e, b, d, a
Saturated fats are associated with an increase in blood cholesterol and thus with cardiovascular diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis, hypertension, strokes and heart attacks). It is recommended not to exceed 7% of total energy intake. The major sources are animal fats and butter.
Sugar and salt
10. What is the maximum amount of added sugars you should not exceed in a day?
a. 10 teaspoons
b. 6 teaspoons
c. 12 teaspoons
The recommended daily consumption of added sugars (e.g. honey, jams, soft drinks) and the sugar you add in foods must not exceed 10% of the total daily energy intake. In a 2,000-calorie diet that meets the needs of a person with moderate level of exercise, this equates to approximately 200 calories (10 teaspoons of sugar).
11. Place the following foods in order according to their content of sugars, starting from the one that contains the highest amount
a. Natural juice
b. An Apple
c. Light refreshments
d. Low fat yogurt
Answer: b, a, d, c
Both fruit and natural juice and yogurt, contain natural sugars. However, all sugars are not the same, so it is advisable to choose wisely what you consume. For example, honey and sugar both have simple sugars, however the nutritional value of honey is much greater.
12. What is the recommended daily salt intake?
a. 1 teaspoon
b. 2 teaspoons
c. 1/2 teaspoon
The recommended daily salt intake is 6 g. (about 1 teaspoon) or 2,300 mg sodium. Foods low in sodium or salt are those containing under 0,1 g. sodium/100 g. or 0.3 g. salt/100 g, while high sodium or salt foods are the ones containing more than 0.6 g. sodium/100 g. or 1.25 g. salt/100g.
13. Match the following foods with sodium containing quantities:
a. 1 slice of bread
b. 30 gr. feta cheese
c. 1 tablespoon ketchup
d. 1 canned tuna in water
1. 168 mg sodium
2. 150 mg sodium
3. 648 mg sodium
4. 167 mg sodium
Answer: d 3, a 2, b 1, c 4
80% of the salt we consume is hidden in foods in the form of sodium. For example, 1 tablespoon ketchup has the amount of salt as one slice of bread or 30 g. feta cheese. Sodium in a diet is associated with hypertension and other chronic diseases.
Pregnancy and family
14. How many extra calories in a day are needed during pregnancy?
A slight increase in calorie intake is only required during the 2nd and 3rd quarter, in order to meet the needs of the fetus. On average, women get 22-30 pounds during pregnancy. It is advisable, therefore, to prefer lean meat dishes with an emphasis on fish, plenty of fruits and vegetables, “good” fat and complex carbohydrates, rather than snacks loaded with sugar and calories.
15. Which of the following foods should be avoided during pregnancy?
b. Big fish
c. Raw eggs
d. Goat cheese
e. Meat that is not well cooked
Answer: b, c, d, e
Big fish, like swordfish and tuna, contain a large quantity of heavy metals, which affect the nervous system and the development of the fetus. Also, salmonella has a big possibility to develop amongst raw foods. The emergence of salmonellosis during pregnancy may endanger the pregnancy. Finally, goat cheese, cheese with mold (e.g. camembert, brie), blue cheese should be avoided, as it can contain the bacteria listeria, which can cause complications in pregnancy.
16. Which of the following foods are a good source of Omega-3 fatty acids?
c. Egg yolk
An adequate consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids lowers levels of “bad” cholesterol (LDL) in the blood, the risk of myocardial infarction and heart diseases, while contributing to good brain function.
17. Iron is very important in the daily diet of a teenager. However, the recommended daily amount for boys is greater than that of girls.
The recommended daily amount is greater for girls, because of iron loss during menstruation. Nevertheless, studies show that about half of teenage girls don’t get the amount of iron they need.